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females, outpatient department and pharmacy (see the picture). Almost at the same time, only several months later, the Turkish Military hospital was established in Sarajevo (5). There were several doctors in Vakufska bolnica (VB). The first one was Dr Josef Koetschet, and he was helped by Turkish military doctors like Dr Jammal, and specially surgeons like Dr Nuri. The last Turkish governor sent two young fellows of local people to Istambul to study medicine to be appointed later to VB. They were Dr Sami Serbic, and Dr Zarif Skender. Having completed medical studies in Istanbul, Dr Serbic had never come back to VB, but Dr Skender was working a certain period of time till his death (5). Dr Karl Bayer who performed the first brain operations came to Sarajevo with Austro - Hungarian occupational troops in 1878.

Dr Karl Bayer and brain operation

Dr Karl Bayer was born in Hradec Kralove in 1850., Bohemia. He completed his medical studies in Prague in 1876., and started working in the Royal Hospital in the same city. Shortly after that he joined Serbian army like a war surgeon in the Serbian-Turkish War, and came back in Bohemia as doctor of forensic medicine settling in his native town. A year later he joined the Austrian Navy and worked as a ship doctor till 1880. From 1880. to 1883. he worked in Mental Hospital, Kumanovo, and later in the Royal Hospital in Prague again, for more than a year. He was appointed professor of forensic medicine after that and stayed at the

University in Prague for a year only. In the year 1885. became to Sarajevo, Bosnia, and became a chief doctor of VB. Dr Bayer stayed in Bosnia for the rest of his life. After the new hospital had been built and established in 1894., VB became Department for Mental Diseases, and Dr Bayer was the chief of this department. He retired in 1911., and died in 1916. There is no photograph of him. During his period in Sarajevo he became a very prominent man, and received several diplomas and awards, from Ghazi Husref Bey's Charitable Foundation and from Municipality of the town (4). The first brain operation in Bosnia was performed in summer 1891. The patient was male, young and suffered from epilepsy. He was injured in the head seven months earlier, and had had a wound in the scalp. The wound healed without any medical help, but three weeks after the injury the patient developed the first epileptic attack. Fits gradually became more frequent, and finally he contacted Dr Bayer who found "that the parietal bone had been punctured and several small bone fragments penetrated into brain. Wound was healed, and the scar was small, but the patient complained of epileptic seizures occurring almost every day". In the next nine months he observed two more patients almost with the same condition. He operated them all upon, and "found small pieces of bone delved in the brain, removed them, and closed the dura (2)." Dr Bayer reached brain through the osteoplastic craniotomy, and the flap was fixed by interrupted sutures and with the plaster on the head after skin suturing had been done.
Muslim Charitable hospital ( Vakufska bolnica)
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